RiiSE21 Conference Apr 10, 2021 12:00 AM — Virtual Meeting (online)
Scottish Radiological Society Spring Meeting 2021 May 14, 2021 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM — Virtual Meeting (online)
2021 SINAPSE ASM Jun 17, 2021 - Jun 18, 2021 — Provisionally: Medical Sciences Building, University of St Andrews
Medical Imaging Convention [rescheduled] Sep 15, 2021 - Sep 16, 2021 — National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham, England
Total Body PET 2021 conference [rescheduled] Sep 25, 2021 - Sep 27, 2021 — McEwan Hall, University of Edinburgh


SINAPSE experts from around Scotland have developed ten online modules designed to explain medical imaging. They are freely available and are intended for non-specialists.

Edinburgh Imaging Academy at the University of Edinburgh offers the following online programmes through a virtual learning environment:

Neuroimaging for Research MSc/Dip/Cert

Imaging MSc/Dip/Cert

PET-MR Principles & Applications Cert

Applied Medical Image Analysis Cert

Online Short Courses

White matter hyperintensities and rating scales - observer reliability varies with lesion load

Author(s): J. M. Wardlaw, K. J. Ferguson, C. Graham

Background:. Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are common in older people. Their presence correlates with cognitive decline and vascular risk factors. Various scales have been developed to quantify the amount and type of WMH, but with few observer reliability studies. We evaluated several scales in different cohorts to determine their observer reliability. Methods:. Two observers independently rated T2-weighted MR images from five groups (total n = 494: normal older subjects [97]; patients with minor stroke [221]; young insulin dependent diabetics [141]; maturity onset diabetics [10]; and hepatic encephalopathy [25]), using seven rating scales (Breteler, Fazekas, Longstreth, Mirsen, Shimada, Van Swieten and Wahlund). Inter-observer reliability was determined using Kappa statistics. Results:. Patients with maturity onset diabetes had the most WMHs and young insulin-dependent diabetics the least. Inter-observer reliability varied with the amount of WMH. In maturity onset diabetics (most WMHs) the weighted Kappas were: Breteler 0.74; Fazekas 0.89 and 0.72; Van Swieten 0.76 and 0.88; and in young insulin-dependent diabetics (least WMH): Breteler 0.3; Fazekas 0.2 and 0.24; Van Swieten 0.39 and 0.30. These findings were consistent across the groups. Conclusion:. WMH rating scale performance varied with WMH prevalence, and hence with subject cohort. In patients with most WMHs the apparent better kappas may reflect a "ceiling effect" rather than true better agreement. These factors should be considered in studies where risk factors for, or associations with, the early development of WMHs are being determined.

Full version: Available here

Click the link to go to an external website with the full version of the paper

ISBN: 0340-5354
Publication Year: 2004
Periodical: Journal of Neurology
Periodical Number: 5
Volume: 251
Pages: 584-590
Author Address: