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eLearning

SINAPSE experts from around Scotland have developed ten online modules designed to explain medical imaging. They are freely available and are intended for non-specialists.


Edinburgh Imaging Academy at the University of Edinburgh offers the following online programmes through a virtual learning environment:

Neuroimaging for Research MSc/Dip/Cert

Imaging MSc/Dip/Cert

PET-MR Principles & Applications Cert

Applied Medical Image Analysis Cert

Online Short Courses

Characterizing functional lung heterogeneity in COPD using reference equations for CT scan-measured lobar volumes

Author(s): C. E. Come, A. A. Diaz, D. Curran-Everett, N. Muralidhar, C. P. Hersh, J. A. Zach, J. Schroeder, D. A. Lynch, B. Celli, G. R. Washko

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: CT scanning is increasingly used to characterize COPD. Although it is possible to obtain CT scan-measured lung lobe volumes, normal ranges remain unknown. Using COPDGene data, we developed reference equations for lobar volumes at maximal inflation (total lung capacity [TLC]) and relaxed exhalation (approximating functional residual capacity [FRC]). METHODS: Linear regression was used to develop race-specific (non-Hispanic white [NHW], African American) reference equations for lobar volumes. Covariates included height and sex. Models were developed in a derivation cohort of 469 subjects with normal pulmonary function and validated in 546 similar subjects. These cohorts were combined to produce final prediction equations, which were applied to 2,191 subjects with old GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stage II to IV COPD. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, women had smaller lobar volumes than men. Height positively correlated with lobar volumes. Adjusting for height, NHWs had larger total lung and lobar volumes at TLC than African Americans; at FRC, NHWs only had larger lower lobes. Age and weight had no effect on lobar volumes at TLC but had small effects at FRC. In subjects with COPD at TLC, upper lobes exceeded 100% of predicted values in GOLD II disease; lower lobes were only inflated to this degree in subjects with GOLD IV disease. At FRC, gas trapping was severe irrespective of disease severity and appeared uniform across the lobes. CONCLUSIONS: Reference equations for lobar volumes may be useful in assessing regional lung dysfunction and how it changes in response to pharmacologic therapies and surgical or endoscopic lung volume reduction.

Full version: Available here

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ISBN: 1931-3543 (Electronic)0012-3692 (Linking)
Publication Year: 2013
Periodical: Chest
Periodical Number: 6
Volume: 143
Pages: 1607-17
Author Address: Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ccome@partners.org