PET is Wonderful Annual Meeting 2020 Oct 27, 2020 02:00 PM - 05:40 PM — Virtual Meeting (online)
Through the Looking Glass: Breaking Barriers in STEM Oct 28, 2020 12:00 PM - 03:30 PM — Virtual Meeting (online)
NRS Mental Health Network Annual Scientific Meeting 2020 Nov 04, 2020 09:00 AM - 05:30 PM — Virtual Meeting (online)
Scottish Radiological Society Annual General Meeting 2020 Nov 06, 2020 09:30 AM - 03:30 PM — Virtual Meeting (online)
IPEM educational meeting: Artificial Intelligence in MRI Nov 18, 2020 12:00 AM — Virtual Meeting (online)


SINAPSE experts from around Scotland have developed ten online modules designed to explain medical imaging. They are freely available and are intended for non-specialists.

Edinburgh Imaging Academy at the University of Edinburgh offers the following online programmes through a virtual learning environment:

Neuroimaging for Research MSc/Dip/Cert

Imaging MSc/Dip/Cert

PET-MR Principles & Applications Cert

Applied Medical Image Analysis Cert

Online Short Courses

ERP-pupil size correlations reveal how bilingualism enhances cognitive flexibility

Author(s): Jan-Rouke Kuipers, Guillaume Thierry

A bilingual upbringing has been shown to enhance executive control, but the neural mechanisms underpinning such effect are essentially unknown. Here, we investigated whether monolingual and bilingual toddlers differ in semantic processing efficiency and their allocation of attention to expected and unexpected visual stimuli. We simultaneously recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and pupil size in monolingual and bilingual toddlers presented with (spoken) word-picture pairs. Although ERP effects elicited by semantic relatedness were indistinguishable between the two children groups, pictures unrelated to the preceding word evoked greater pupil dilation than related pictures in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. Furthermore, increasing pupil dilation to unrelated pictures was associated with decreasing N400 amplitude in bilinguals, whereas the monolingual toddlers showed the opposite association. Hence, attention to unexpected stimuli seems to hamper semantic integration in monolinguals, but to facilitate semantic integration in bilinguals, suggesting that bilingual toddlers are more tolerant to variation in word-referent mappings. Given the link between pupil dilation and norepinephrine-driven cognitive efficiency, correlations between ERP amplitude and concurrent pupil dilation provide new insights into the neural bases of the bilingual cognitive advantage.

Full version: Available here

Click the link to go to an external website with the full version of the paper

ISBN: 0010-9452
Publication Year: 2013
Periodical: Cortex
Periodical Number: 10
Volume: 49
Pages: 2853-2860
Author Address: