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SINAPSE experts from around Scotland have developed ten online modules designed to explain medical imaging. They are freely available and are intended for non-specialists. **Unfortunately these do not currently work in browsers**

Edinburgh Imaging Academy at the University of Edinburgh offers the following online programmes through a virtual learning environment:

Neuroimaging for Research MSc/Dip/Cert

Imaging MSc/Dip/Cert

PET-MR Principles & Applications Cert

Applied Medical Image Analysis Cert

Online Short Courses

Dr. Carlos Mugruza-Vassallo

Home page: Go to homepage
Position: Universidad Nacional Tecnológica de Lima Sur, Researcher / Collaboration with University of Dundee, Former PhD student
Institute: Ingeniería y Gestión / Collaboration with University of Dundee
Department: EAP Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones / Colaboration with Neuroscience and Development

Description of Phd:

Fox et al.  hypothesize that a dorsal ‘goal-driven’ attention network controls environmentally directed processes (perception and action) and a ‘default network’ controls internally directed processes (memory and introspection) (Fox et al., 2005) . Within this model it was hypothesised that a ventral ‘stimulus-driven’ network facilitates reorientation in goal driven attention as well as between internally and externally directed processing modes. We have demonstrated abnormal patterns of brain activity in both the goal-driven and stimulus driven networks in individuals with a history of mild concussion (Potter et al., 2001) and in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (Potter et al., 2008). These abnormalities may result from reduced effectiveness of frontal control caused by diffuse neurotransmitter imbalances (Rolls et al., 2008). The research extended our previous work by providing a better understanding of the role of the stimulus-driven system in switching between goal-driven and default processing modes (Mugruza-Vassallo, 2015 ).


Cognitive Computing and Neuroscience Group at UNTELS


Carlos Andrés Mugruza Vassallo -

Itamar Franco Salazar Reque - M.Sc. Evaluación de técnicas del problema inverso para estudio del número de señales de electroencefalograma para mecanismos cognitivos. Postgrado en Procesamiento Digital de Señales. Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería.

Muñoz Canales Ricardo Alonso- Abril, 2017. Tesis de pregrado en Ingeniería Electrónica-UCH. “Diseño de un filtro digital sobre un FPGA para aplicaciones en el taller de la empresa naval industrial  ubicado en lima, los olivos”. 078-2014-R-UCH

José Portilla Fernández - Marzo, 2018. Tesis de pregrado en Ingeniería Sistemas - ULima. “Experimento de medición de tiempos de reacción del cerebro humano frente a estímulos 2D y 3D para estudios de atención”.

Yamina Andrade Huaman - “Estudio del tiempo de reacción ante un evento simulado de sismo en una adaptación de videojuego 2d para la UNTELS”. Programa de Graduación de la EAP Ing. Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones-UNTELS


Fredrich Huamani Atao - “Diseño, implementación y evaluación de un experimento visual 2d en computación cognitiva en la UNTELS”. Programa de Graduación de la EAP Ing. Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones-UNTELS


Victor Flores Benites

José Gabriel Lázaro

Daniel Cóndor

Carlos Mamani


Luz Elena Collado Arapa -

Edward Ventura Barrientos


Walter Chumpitaz 

Collaboration and Aims: Carlos Mugruza is working between Computing and Cognitive Neuroscience. In the last years he has worked with EEG and fMRI, his experiments are between oddball paradigms, Go-NoGo, 3D and augmented reality.

Since 2013, Carlos Mugruza and Douglas Potter continued the analysis of data between the University of Dundee and the Cognitive Neuroscience Group in Peru. Therefore the aims are:

- To better characterise the function of the stimulus-driven system by determining the effects of task load and distractor contingency on  the temporal relationships between the components of the stimulus-driven system.

- To better characterise the function of the stimulus-driven system by inducing more explicit switching and maintenance of processing modes.


Experimental Methods: Combine fMRI and EEG to visualise selective activation or suppression of posterior and anterior components of the ‘stimulus-driven’ control system while participants perform a number decision paradigm in which the temporal and spatial relationship of goal relevant and distractor stimuli are systematically manipulated. Basically EEG and fMRI signals are modeled as


EEG = β0 + ∑ βiSi + β3A3 + Error

fMRI(k) = f(fMRI(k-1), condition, motor response) 


EEG equation considers 2 categorical variables as regressors.


Theoretical Methods: An information theory framework is being used. Simulation of the information of the auditory parity experiment has shown around 300 ms CTOA a saddle indentation in the curve of the information measure based on the states of the incoming signal.

Expected Outcomes: The development of optimised, inexpensive (EEG), measures of cognitive control for use assessment attention functions. Specific use are in:

- human computation in disaster and resilience

- cognitive strategies in anaemia and dyslexia

- neuromarketing and

- pharmacological efficacy in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression and mild cognitive impairment.

Key Publications


2.MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A.; MUGRUZA VASSALLO, Y.C. (2021) Método, Equipo y Sistema Respiratorio Artificial con Control y Monitoreo de Presiones para la Calibración de Parámetros en Equipos de Ventilación Mecánica. 

1.CASTILLÓN LEVANO, C.B.; MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A.; COELLO DURAND, J.L. (2014) Full Neonatal Critical Care Equipment. WIPO. Published 2011/03/17. Filed 2009/09/11

Peer review articles

... MUGRUZA VASSALLO ET AL (IN PREPARATION). Running title: Time and attention in switching modes of attention reveals specific contextual signatures in a parametric design of an auditory oddball paradigm. 

24. MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C. A., et al. (submitted). Markov Response to visual stimuli processing in a Go-Go experiment in 2D, 3D and augmented reality.

23. SALAZAR LARA, I.F., MUGRUZA-VASSALLO, C.A. (accepted) "Comparación del Ruido y número de electrodos en diversas técnicas al resolver el problema inverso para señales de EEG". Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Biomédica

22. DILAS-JIMÉNEZ, J. (submitted).  Behavior of the coffee variety Marsellesa as an alternative for coffee growing over 1400 m.a.s.l.

21. (Q3) Arteaga, M., Dilas, J., Villanueva, N., Cernaqué, O, Tafur, S., Olivera, J.E., MUGRUZA-VASSALLO, C.A. (in press). Isolation and identification of a native microbial consortium for the coffee pulp degradation above 2000 m.a.s.l. Coffee Science.

20. (Q2) Mugruza-Vassallo, C. A., Potter, D. D., Tsiora, S., Macfarlane, J. A., & Maxwell, A. (2021). Prior context influences motor brain areas in an auditory oddball task and prefrontal cortex multitasking modelling. Brain informatics8(1), 1-28.

19. TORRES-TEJADA, S., PORTILLA-FERNÁNDEZ, J., MUGRUZA-VASSALLO, C.A., CÓRDOVA-BERRIOS, L. (2020) "Variaciones de los tiempos de reacción frente a cambios de perspectiva y tamaño de los estímulos 2D y 3D en atención selectiva". Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Biomédica Vol. 41, no. 1: 1-14.

18. Scopus Mamani-Diaz, C. A., Medina-Castaneda, E. E. , & MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C. A. (2019, October). Deep Learning for Plant Classification in Precision Agriculture. In 2019 International Conference on Computer, Control, Informatics and its Applications (IC3INA) (pp. 9-13). IEEE.

17. (Q1) MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A. & POTTER, D.D. (2019). Context Dependence Signature, Stimulus Properties and Stimulus Probability as Predictors of ERP Amplitude Variability. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 13:39.

16. Scopus CÓRDOVA BERRÍOS, L.L; MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A; FLORES-BENITES, V. (2018, August). Missed Signals in the Congruency between Visual Distracting Cues and Auditory Goals. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Communication and Management (pp. 7-11). ACM.

15. Scopus MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A; RIVERO, T. (2018). The Role of the Size Maze and Learning Parameters in the Prefrontal Cortex Modeling Based in Minicolumns. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Communication and Management (pp. 67-72). ACM.

14. (Q4) MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A (2018). Cognitive neuroscience in Peruvian university programs at Information and Communication Technologies 8 (6), 437-442 
(Q3/4) MUGRUZA-VASSALLO, C. A.; CASTILLÓN-LÉVANO, C. B.; ROMÁN-LINARES, H.. (2018) Incubadora neonatal con ventilación mecánica embebida. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Biomédica, [S.l.], v. 39, n. 2, p. 165-181. ISSN 2395-9126. doi: 
12. Scopus MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A; MIÑANO SUAREZ, S. (2016, October).
Academia and patents at information and communications technology in South-America productivity. In Information Communication and Management (ICICM), International Conference on (pp. 24-29). IEEE. 
11.Scopus MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A (2016, October). Database methodology for therapy evaluation in auditory schizophrenia disorder based on continuity evolution of symptoms. In Information Communication and Management (ICICM), International Conference on (pp. 298-303). IEEE. 
10.Scopus MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A (2016, October). Integral and transformative engineering coursework in formative research for undergraduate curricula. In Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2016 IEEE (pp. 1-8). IEEE. 
9.Scopus MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A (2016). Different regressors for linear modelling of ElectroEncephaloGraphic recordings in visual and auditory tasks. In Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN), 2016 IEEE 13th International Conference on (pp. 260-265). 
8.(Q1) Scopus DE WILDE ET AL (2012). A systematic review of the utility of 1.5 versus 3 Tesla magnetic resonance brain imaging in clinical practice and research.
European Radiology.22(11):2295-2303.  
7.MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A (2005). Modelagem matemática e simulação de potenciais de ação de unidades motoras. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Biomédica, v. 21, n. 2-3, p. 151-166.  
6.MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A. Dinámica no lineal y caos en circuitos eléctricos de elementos pasivos R, C, diodo en serie: respuesta en frecuencia.
Electro electrónica, v. 22, p. 12 - 15, 20 Julio. 2004. 
5.Scopus MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A. Van der Waals and Ideal gas models for compressibility by means of pressure in pneumatic pipes from 1 to 100 Lpm. In: 26th Annual International Conference of the engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 2004, San Francisco. Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, 2004. v. 1. p. 2034-2037.   
4.MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A. Modelos de gas Van der Waals y gas ideal para compresibilidad: por medio de presión para cambios de áreas en circuitos neumáticos de 1 a 100Lpm. Electro electrónica, v. 22, p. 07 - 11, 20 Julio. 2004.   
3.Scopus MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A. Flow gas transducer on basis of a hot wire with a nickel-titanium alloy in its flow calibration system. In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2001, 2001, Istambul. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, 2001. v. 3. p. 3124-3127.  
2.MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A; VILLAVICENCIO, R.; PALOMINO, A. Transductor de flujo de gases basado en un tubo de Venturi, rango de 2 hasta 70Lpm. Electro electrónica, v. 17, p. 46 - 53, 08 Enero. 2002.   
1.MUGRUZA VASSALLO, C.A. Sensor de flujo de gases basado en una aleación del Níquel con Titanio.
Electro electrónica, v. 15, p. 48 - 52, 09 Enero. 2001.