Numerous reported burn injuries have been sustained during clinical AM procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible factors that may be responsible for such burns. Experiments were performed to investigate three possible mechanisms for causing heating in copper wire during AM: direct electromagnetic induction in a conductive loop, induction in a resonant conducting loop, and electric field resonant coupling with a wire (the antenna effect). Maximum recorded temperature rises were 0.6 degreesC for the loop, 61.1 degreesC for the resonant loop, and 63.5 degreesC for the resonant antenna. These experimental findings suggest that, contrary to common belief, it is unlikely that direct induction in a conductive loop will result in thermal injury. Burn incidents are more likely to occur due to the formation of resonant conducting loops and from extended wires forming resonant antenna. The characteristics of resonance should be considered when formulating safety guidelines. (C) 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.