M. C. Valdes Hernandez, R. J. Piper, M. E. Bastin, N. A. Royle, S. M. Maniega, B. S. Aribisala, C. Murray, I. J. Deary, J. M. Wardlaw


1936-959X (Electronic)0195-6108 (Linking)

Publication year



AJNR Am J Neuroradiol

Periodical Number



Author Address

Brain Research Imaging Centre, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine; Division of Health Sciences; and Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:White matter hyperintensities are characteristic of old age and identifiable on FLAIR and T2-weighted MR imaging. They are typically separated into periventricular or deep categories. It is unclear whether the innermost segment of periventricular white matter hyperintensities is truly abnormal or is imaging artifacts.MATERIALS AND METHODS:We used FLAIR MR imaging from 665 community-dwelling subjects 72-73 years of age without dementia. Periventricular white matter hyperintensities were visually allocated into 4 categories: 1) thin white line; 2) thick rim; 3) penetrating toward or confluent with deep white matter hyperintensities; and 4) diffuse ill-defined, labeled as “subtle extended periventricular white matter hyperintensities.” We measured the maximum intensity and width of the periventricular white matter hyperintensities, mapped all white matter hyperintensities in 3D, and investigated associations between each category and hypertension, stroke, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease, and total white matter hyperintensity volume.RESULTS:The intensity patterns and morphologic features were different for each periventricular white matter hyperintensity category. Both the widths (r = 0.61, P < .001) and intensities (r = 0.51, P < .001) correlated with total white matter hyperintensity volume and with each other (r = 0.55, P < .001) for all categories with the exception of subtle extended periventricular white matter hyperintensities, largely characterized by evidence of erratic, ill-defined, and fragmented pale white matter hyperintensities (width: r = 0.02, P = .11; intensity: r = 0.02, P = .84). The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and neuroradiologic evidence of stroke increased from periventricular white matter hyperintensity categories 1 to 3. The mean periventricular white matter hyperintensity width was significantly larger in subjects with hypertension (mean difference = 0.5 mm, P = .029) or evidence of stroke (mean difference = 1 mm, P < .001). 3D mapping revealed that periventricular white matter hyperintensities were discontinuous with deep white matter hyperintensities in all categories, except only in particular regions in brains with category 3.CONCLUSIONS:Periventricular white matter hyperintensity intensity levels, distribution, and association with risk factors and disease suggest that in old age, these are true tissue abnormalities and therefore should not be dismissed as artifacts. Dichotomizing periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities by continuity from the ventricle edge toward the deep white matter is possible.